Reading Comprehension.(50 points, 2 points for each)Directions: In this part of the test, there are five passages. Following each passage, there are five questions with four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer and then write the corresponding letter on your Answer Sheet.
1.Passage OneThey earn and spend, buy and sell, work and play. It's a mass of individuals, struggling to satisfy often-conflicting goals, who set the pace for the American system.Whether the nation's huge business machine sputters or steams ahead depends on millions of individual consumers, the real "bosses" of the American economy. People's decisions on where to live and work, what to buy or pass over, how . much to save are at the heart of the free market system. Business and government take their cues from consumers, changing plans to meet their wants and needs. Everyday, the nation's 218 million consumers spend more than 3 billion dollars. Their purchases account for almost two-thirds of all the money spent each year, with government and business responsible for the rest. The trouble is that while people's needs are almost endless, their incomes aren 't. Where money goes? About 70 percent of the average household's spending . goes for necessities such as housing, food, clothes and health care. To be able to afford these items and still have money left for nonessentials such as travel and entertainment, most families find themselves economizing and watching their pennies. The same problem of matching limited resources with seemingly endless . demands confronts businesses and public agencies. That is what the economy is all about-making choices on how to use limited resources of money, manpower, machinery and materials, whether it involves a shopper deciding what to buy in the supermarket or a manufacturer deciding what line of goods to produce. Choices made in the economy involve a continuous [tug-of-war] between. consumers and producers over price. If many businesses are offering a product and there is plenty of it to satisfy the needs of all consumers, a producer will be forced to sell at a price not far above costs in order to keep from being stuck with a lot of unmarketable supplies. This is why, for example, prices for fresh fruit and vegetables drop during the summer months when such produce is in great number. There is a natural ceiling on price, but it differs from one buyer to the next, depending on how much each can afford to pay and how badly he wants to buy. If a company prices its goods or services too high, some consumers will decide they're getting too little value for the money and will put off buying. "It's not worth that much'" is the view heard in such situation. But if a respected brand of clothing or appliance is marked down during a sale, the reaction may be just the opposite: a rush of purchases. Why? "It's a good. buy for the money." Questions 1-5 are based on Passage One.The real "bosses" in paragraph 2 refer to _____.
2.What can we learn from paragraph 3?
A.The government tends to dominate the market.
B.The manufacturers ignore the consumers" demands.
C.The businessmen take over the American economy completely.
D.The consumers decisions take the key role in the American economy.
3.The average Americans spend most of their money on-
4.In paragraph 6, a "tug-of-war" implies a sort of _____.
5.A producer sometimes has to sell his products at a very low price to avoid _____.
A.having a heavy stock
B.having a short supply
C.causing a price war
D.losing his profit
6.Passage TwoTight-lipped elders used to say, "It's not what you want in this world but what you get that matters." Psychology teaches that you do get what you want if you know what you want and want the right things. You can make a mental blueprint of a desire as you would make a blueprint of a house, and each of us is continually making these blueprints in the general routine of everyday living. If we intend to have friends to dinner, we plan the menu, make a shopping list and decide which food to cook first, and such planning is essential for any type of meal to be served.Likewise, if yon want to find a job, take a sheet of paper, and write a brief account of yourself. In making a blueprint for a job, begin with yourself, for when you know exactly what you have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to ell your services. This account of yourself is actually a sketch of your working life and should include education, experience and references. Such an account is valuable. It can be referred to in filling out standard application blanks and is extremely helpful in personal interviews. While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding . whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and your "wares" and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner. When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something tangible to sell. Then you are ready to hunt for a job. Get all the possible information about your could-be job.Make inquiries as to the details regarding the job and the firm. Keep your eyes and ears open, and use your own judgment. Spend a certain amount of time each day seeking the employment you . wish for, and keep in mind: Securing a job is your job now. Questions 6-10 are based on Passage Two.What does psychology teach us?
A.It is useless to have a dream.
B.You"ll hardly get what you want
C.It is necessary to set a goal for yourself.
D.You should be satisfied with what you get.
7.Making a blueprint in job hunting is often helpful in____.
A.finding you a well-paid job
B.knowing the job market well
C.finding experienced colleagues
D.knowing where to find your future employer
8.Before starting to find a job, the first thing one should do is ____.
A.to send a job application
B.to get ready for personal interviews
C.to fill out his education and experience form
D.to write an account of his working experiences.
9."Wares" in paragraph 4 refer to____.
A.your education, job requirement and qualifications
B.your education, experience and references
C.a presentation of your basic competence
D.an account of your present job
10.After preparing a blueprint of one"s abilities and desires, one may____.
A.collect and analyze any possible job information
B.make a phone call to your prospective employer
C.learn about the dress code in the workplace
D.ask for an interview
11.Years ago, when i started looking for my first job, wise advisers urged. "Barbara, be enthusiastic! [Enthusiasm] will take you further than any amount of experience." How right they were. Enthusiastic people can turn a boring drive into an adventure, extra work into opportunity and strangers into friends.Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm," wrote Ralph Waldo Emerson. It is the paste that helps you hang in there when the going gets tough. It is the inner voice that whispers, "I can do it!" when others shout, "No, you can't." It took years and years for the early work of Barbara McClintock, a geneticist who won the 1983 Nobel Prize in medicine, to be generally accepted. Yet she didn't let up on her experiments. Work was such a deep pleasure for her that she never thought of stopping. We are all born with wide-eyed, enthusiastic wonder as anyone knows who has ever seen an infant's delight at the jingle of keys or the scurrying of a beetle. It is this childlike wonder that gives enthusiastic people such a youthful air, whatever their age. At 90, cellist Pablo Casals would start his day by playing Bach. As the music flowed through his fingers, his stooped shoulders would straighten and joy would reappear in his eyes. Music, for Casals, was an elixir that made life a never ending. adventure. As author and poet Samuel Ullman once wrote, "Years wrinkle the skin. but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul." How do you rediscover the enthusiasm of your childhood? The answer, I believe, lies in the word itself. "Enthusiasm" comes from Greek and means "God within". And what is God within is but an abiding sense of love-proper love of self (self-acceptance) and, from that, love of others. Enthusiastic people also love what they do, regardless of money or title or power. If we cannot do what we love as a full-time career, we can as a part-time avocation, like the head of state who paints, the nun who runs marathons, the executive who handcrafts furniture. Elizabeth Layton or Wellsville, Kan, was 68 before she he began to draw. This activity ended bouts of depression that had plagued her tor a least 30 years, and the quality of her work led one critic to say, “I am tempted to call Layton a genius. " Elizabeth has rediscovered her enthusiasm. We can't afford to waste tears on "might-have-beens". We need to turn the tears into sweat as we go after “what-can-be”.We need to live each moment wholeheartedly, with all our senses—finding. pleasure in the fragrance of a back-yard garden, the crayoned picture of a six-year-old, the enchanting beauty of a rainbow. It is such enthusiastic love of life that puts a sparkle in our eyes, a lilt in our steps and smooths the wrinkles from our souls. Questions 11-15 are based on Passage Three.The word "enthusiasm" in paragraph I is closest in meaning to _____.
12.To Barbara, her work was just _____.
B.a great joy
D.an inner call
13.We can learn from the story of Pablo Casals that enthusiastic wonder _____.
A.wrinkles one"s soul
B.takes up too much time
C.makes one"s life exciting
D.straightens one"s stooped shoulders
14.According to the passage, the following statements are true EXCEPT _____.
A.money is not the goal for enthusiastic people
B.we can do what we love as a part-time avocation
C.only a part-time avocation can enable us to perfect ourselves
D.the mention of the nun indicates running is her part-time avocation
15.A suitable title of this passage is _____.
A.Adventures Broaden One"s Horizons
B.It"s No Use Crying over Spilt Milk
C.Regrets Wrinkle One"s Soul
D.Enthusiasm Takes You Further
16.Passage FourAs America's air becomes steadily more contaminated, activities across the nation to cope with smog appear to be lagging further and further behind actual needs despite a rising public [clamor] for improvement. There has been considerable progress in the last couple of years. But the over-all picture is that so many localities haven't really come to grips with the air pollution problem that people might be dismayed if they knew how their welfare . was being trifled with. Air pollution sources are now hurling more than 140 million tons of contaminants into the atmosphere every year by Federal estimates. Two years ago, it was only 130 million tons. The increase has been caused by many things-more. people, more automobiles, more industry, more space heating, little if any reductions that more often than not are inadequate. The adverse health effects of air pollution are becoming more widely recognized, although specific medical evidence is still fragmentary. As a psychological annoyance, often called an "esthetic" factor, it translates into. decreased property values. In damage to crops and other plants, its cost is reckoned . in millions of dollars; in damage to structures and materials, in billions. Federal and state pollution control officials report the following highlight of the current situation. States and localities generally still have penalties for air pollution that are little more than a wrist slap (with fines as low as $10). Enforcement is generally sketchy and weak. And the remedial procedures are so cumbersome that more and.more they are being bypassed by simple lawsuits brought by public officials or citizens.Although Federal law has required auto makers to provide vehicles with fume control equipment, few states have done anything to assure its effectiveness, after a car has left the factory, by providing for regular inspection of the equipment. Public officials in many places still seem to consider bursts of complaints from citizens preferable to complaints they might pet from instituting effective air quality programs. Industries and other polluters, such as municipalities, still exert great influence, opposing or weakening regulatory laws and "packing" regulatory boards with their own spokesmen. Public resentment over air pollution is growing, as is shown by recurring incidents of picketing the increasing number of legal actions. The big Federal program to combat air pollution, under way for several years, is proceeding fairly close to schedule. But Federal auto-fume regulations will not be very productive for nearly a decade-until around 100 million unregulated, older-generation cars have been replaced on the highways. The part of the Federal effort that deals with stationary pollution sources, like factories, is still largely in an organizational phase, yielding little immediate reduction in fumes. Questions 16-20 are based on Passage Four.The word "clamor" in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ____.
17.Which of the following partly explains the worsening of the general situation of air pollution?
A.No Federal efforts have been made to enforce the law.
B.Many local authorities haven"t seriously dealt with air pollution.
C.The auto-makers haven"t worked out the fume control equipment.
D.Most people don"t care about the disastrous consequences of air pollution.
18.Currently, the enforcement of pollution control regulations by states and local authorities is ____.
19.How have the states carried out the Federal auto-fume regulations?
A.All the states have taken these regulations seriously.
B.Very few states have regularly inspected the fume control equipment.
C.Some states have maintained the fume control equipment on a weekly basis.
D.Most states have contributed to the inspection of the fume control equipment.
20.The author thinks of the Federal effort in dealing with stationary pollution sources as ____.
21.Passage FivePeninsula City News reported on May 30 that the recent drama Les Interpretes (The Interpreters) starring Huang Xuan and Yang Mi ushered in the opener ratings, with the view figures of major media ranking first. The play is adapted from the popular Internet novel The Interpreters, which is the so-called "IP drama". Currently, the drama has presented the reputation of polarization, with the thumbs-up from many people as well as some teasing from other viewers, especially from the fans of the original novel, since the adapted screenplay has a lot of dissatisfaction. At the Huairou Professional Writers Forums held in Beijing not long ago, screenwriter Wang Hailin solemnly said, "Do not change IP," which spoke out the voices of many writers. Les Interpretes tells the story that Cioffi, a master of the French Language Department. grows into a senior interpreter under the guidance of the translation genius Cheng Jiayang. The two become intimate lovers as the story unfolds. The original novel enjoys high popularity among the online readers. The audience ratings have risen across the board since it was broadcast on May 24, causing a hot discussion and uneven comments among the audience. As an excellent actor of the new generation, Huang Xuan continues to catch people's eyes. Yang Mi's performance in the play also wins some praise for her enhanced acting skills. The theme of professional translators, which rarely appeared in the TV market, has received many good comments from some audience. However, more and more critics are also heard at the same time. It is said that the play is "the first drama which devotedly depicts the translation industry", trying to show the audience the "precise principle, cruel elimination system and raining methods" in translation circles. However, many people have complained that it is not that rigorous in production and the plot set-up. Some netizens said that the plot seemed to be a love story under the banner of translation and workplace. Huang Xuan acts more like an indifferent and. offensive CEO instead of a translation genius. Yang Mi, known as a straight A student, seems more like a silly and woolly-minded girl. Now more and more production companies have chosen to make a combination of popular IP and popular actors. However, the masterworks such as "Legend of Zhen Huan" and "Nirvana in Fire" are extremely rare. The majority of IP dramas end up with dissatisfaction and teasing from people. It is not a bad thing. to depict the story in the manner of TV drama or movie, but the unsuccessful IP dramas have overflown the market so that a lot of people have begun to worry that the original might have been destroyed before the shooting begins. Professional writers appeal against the adaptation of IP. At the forums held in Beijing not long ago, Wang Hailin, whose works include "Legend of Chu and Han" and "Medicine Man Xi Laile", said solemnly, "Do not change the IP anymore." Wang Hailin believes that IP cannot revitalize the soap opera market if the investors only focus on the popularity rather than devote themselves to the recreation of the plots. He called on writers to adhere to the original instead of imitating IP dramas of inferior quality. However, the reverse of the market environment is a long-term project. Questions 21-25 are based on Passage Five.Les Interpretes is greatly welcomed by ____.
D.the fans of the original novel
22.Les Interpretes has NOT received criticism of ____.
23.Some professional writers are against the adaption of IP because of ____.
A.the poor marketing.
B.the financial problem
C.the poor feedback from the viewers
D.the disappointing performance of the actors
24.According to Wang Hailin, the soap opera market will not be prosperous if the investors only care about ____.
A.the recreation of the plots
B.the popularity of the drama
C.the imitation of the inferior works
D.the reverse of the market environment
25.This passage is mainly about polarization in the comments on ____.
(10 points, 1 point for each)Directions: Scan the following passage and find the words which have roughly the same meanings as those given below. The number in the brackets after each word definition refers to the number of paragraph in which the target word is. Write the word you choose on the Answer Sheet.
11.The over-60 population is growing faster than any other age group. Between 1950 and 2050 it is expected to increase from 200 million to 2 billion. As the number of older persons increases, so will the need to ensure their social inclusion, based on an income from decent work or retirement and a chance to participate in community life through employment, volunteer work or other activities. Decent work treats men and women equally, without discrimination or harassment. Finally, decent work provides social security and is carried out in conditions of freedom and human dignity. In most developing countries retirement is a luxury few older people can afford. Even in developed countries some hard working people will not have enough to live on retirement. Many women-paid less than men, working more at home than men, and working more informally than men—may not be ready or able to rest at 65. By tradition, at least in developed countries, there is a change in roles as one. moves from active middle years into "gentle" and "enjoyable" retirement. This change in roles has been viewed by the public, by government and by business, as a l transition from a productive time of life to one that is unproductive and dependent. But today more than ever, this is not true. Most older people do not withdraw from society. Instead, they continue to contribute to their households, to their descendants and to their communities, although their contribution may not be paid employment. 26. guarantee (Para. 1)27. the practice of treating a person differently (usu. worse) than others (Para. 1)28. satisfactory (Para. 1)29. quality that earns or deserves respect (Para. 1)30. thing that is expensive and enjoyable, but not essential (Para. 2)31. have enough money to buy or pay for something (Para. 2)32. regarded (Para. 3)33. instance of changing from one state or condition to another (Para. 3)34. needing support from someone (Para. 3)35. stop belonging to (Para. 3 )
(20 points, 2 points for each)Directions: In this section of the test, there are ten paragraphs. Each of the paragraphs is followed by an incomplete phrase or sentence which summarizes the main idea of the paragraph. Spell out the missing letters of the word on your Answer Sheet.
21.Paragraph OneIn order to achieve anything worthwhile, it is important to stay focused and to avoid being sidetracked by the many distractions which inevitably come your way. And yet it is also important to stay flexible, so you can adjust, adapt to, and take advantage of the changing situations.The importance of c_____ and flexibility.
22.Paragraph Twocommunicators who speak a different language, the level of uncertainty is especially high. Consider the basic challenge of communicating in an unfamiliar language. Unless you can speak and understand the other language like a native, it's often difficult to know for certain what others are saying or to express your own ideas accurately.A great challenge of getting the intended m_____ in communication.
23.Paragraph ThreeThe desire for easy answers enslaves too many people to lives of mediocrity. The way out of the trap is to think for yourself. Have the courage to ask the hard questions, and to work to find the answers. Make a commitment every day to do the mental work that will lead to growth and achievement.Be an i_____ thinker.
24.Paragraph FourWinners train for months and years before the actual competition. The winning is really in the preparation, not in the race itself. Being prepared will make you strong, bold, confident and competent. Practice preparation. Be sure you're ready to make the best of all that life has to offer.O_____ always goes to the one who is well prepared.
25.Paragraph FiveParents should pay close attention to whether or not they are practicing honesty, fairness, and caring for themselves. Nobody is perfect all the time. That is why it's important for parents, in fact, to act as role models for their children in terms of humility, self-awareness, and honesty by acknowledging and working on their mistakes and flaws.Parents should set a good e_____ to their children .
26.Paragraph SixWithout saying a word, the vicious outlaw drew his gun and cut the policeman down with a shower of lead. As the dying officer fell, he leaped out of the car, grabbed the officer's revolver, and fired another bullet into the prostrate.The outlaw s_____ at the policeman.
27.Paragraph SevenWhen you really apologize, you would feel good about yourself. An effective. apology is an act of honesty. Apologizing doesn't make us perfect, but it shows our commitment to be honest about our imperfections and steadfast in our efforts to do better.Apologize to show your s_____.
28.Paragraph EightIt is important to identify the basis of comparison before drafting a comparison or contrast essay. When two things are very similar, it is the contrast that is worth writing about. And when they are not very much alike, you should highlight similarities.T_____ on writing an essay of comparison and contrast.
29.Paragraph NineOne world-famous psychologist proved through his experiments that an animal rewarded for good behavior will learn much more rapidly and retain what it learns far more effectively than an animal punished for bad behavior. Later studies have shown that the same applies to humans.A s_____ nature of animals and humans.
210.Paragraph TenOne of the biggest enemies of accomplishment is comfort. Most people are so attached to being comfortable that they're just not willng to do what it takes to succeed. To some extent, taking risks is very uncomfortable. but very necessary for success.To succeed, you need to step out of your comfort z_____.
(20 points, 4 points for each)Directions: In the following passage, there are five groups of underlined sentences. Read the passage carefully and translate these sentences into Chinese. Write the Chinese version on your Answer Sheet.
31.Psychologists have known for some time that optimism is a good defense against unhappiness. But some of us are just not natural optimists. What are we supposed to do? Positive psychologists believe optimism can be learned. All we have to do is to spend time mulling over all the things that have gone right for us, rather than dwelling on what has gone badly. (46. "Research on depression shows that one of the biggest causes of depression is ruminating about something that went wrong in the past." says Baylis. You keep feeding it the oxygen of attention and the flames keep burning you. )But just as dwelling on negative events can lead to depression, dwelling on things that have gone well can help pick you up, he says, (47. "You have to thank your lucky stars about what goes right on a daily basis. Whenever you get the feeling of being negative about things, just take a moment out and remind youself of the stuff that has gone well." )Seligman, who is the figurehead of the positive psychology movement, goes further than suggesting people learn to think positively. He has worked out what he sees as a blueprint for happiness that people can use to set them on the path to a fulfilling and satisfying life. He believes there are three routes to happiness, which he calls the "pleasant life", the "good life" and the "meaningful life". (48. Some are. better than others, although a mix of all three is ideal. The pleasant life sees superficial pleasures as the key to happiness. While a life bent on instant pleasure. and gratification offers some degree of happiness, it is ultimately unsatisfying on its own.)(49.To be seriously happy, Seligman says, we have to set our sights on a good life and a meaningful life. To do this we need to identify what he calls our signature. strengths, which could be anything from perseverance and leadership to a love of learning.) Seligman says that once we know our signature strengths, using them more and more in our daily lives will make us feel happier and more fulfilled. By exploiting our strengths, he says, we will find life more gratifying and become completely immersed in what we are doing, whether working, making music or playing sport-a state positive psychologists call "flow". Using our signature strengths in our working and social lives will help us achieve what Seligman calls a good life, while using them to help others will put us on course for achieving a meaningful life, he says. While positive psychology is broadly seen as valid by the psychology and psychiatry establishment, it does have its critics. (50. Positive psychologists also stand accused of burying their heads in the. sand and ignoring that depressed. even merely unhappy people, have real problems that need dealing with.) Seligman counters this, saying positive psychology is not meant to replace other forms of therapy, but should be complementary, while people work through their negative feelings.